Glaucoma is a condition that damages the optic nerve, which is vital for good vision. This damage is caused by a high pressure in the eye.

Glaucoma is one of the major causes of blindness in people over the age of 60. It can occur at any age, and is more common in older adults.

Most people with glaucoma have no early symptoms or pain in the eye. Visiting an eye doctor regularly can diagnose and treat glaucoma before one has long term vision loss.

Many forms of glaucoma have no warning signs. Glaucoma is a gradual process that people may not notice a change in vision until the condition is in an advanced stage, because vision loss due to glaucoma cannot be recovered, it is important to take regular eye checkup that include measurements of your eye pressure so a diagnosis can be made in its early stages and treated appropriately. If glaucoma is recognized early, vision loss can be controlled.

Glaucoma types

Open angle glaucoma

It is the most common type of glaucoma. In all forms of open angle glaucoma, there is weak drainage angle of the eye even though it appears to be open and appears normal in microscopic exams. In the drainage angle the iris connects a tissue called the trabecular meshwork.

Primary open angle glaucoma

In primary open angle glaucoma, the drainage of the eye is open but does not drain adequately. This causes the eye’s drainage system to become clogged over time, leading to a slow increase in intraocular pressure. This type of glaucoma is painless until the optic nerve becomes more severe with some people losing their vision before they are aware there is a problem.

Low pressure glaucoma

It is also called normal tension glaucoma, and is characterized by damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.  Low pressure glaucoma is also known to result from low blood flow to the optic nerve and leads to migraines, Raynaud’s disease, and sleep apnea.

Congenital Glaucoma

Congenital glaucoma is a form of the disease that occurs in children and adults due to abnormal development of the drainage angle of the eye. Symptoms of congenital glaucoma often include light sensitivity, watery eyes, and keeping the eyes closed.

Glaucoma causes

  • Dilating eye drops
  • Blocked and drainage in eye
  • Medications, such as corticosteroids
  • Poor  blood flow to the optic nerve
  • High  blood pressure

Glaucoma symptoms

Following are the symptoms of Glaucoma;

  • Severe pain in eye
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Redness in eye
  • Sudden vision disturbances
  • Seeing colored rings around lights
  • Blurred vision

Glaucoma diagnosis and treatment

Glaucoma is usually checked during a routine eye test, before it causes any serious symptoms. Some other tests are usually needed to diagnose the Glaucoma.

It is important to take regular eye tests so problems such as Glaucoma can be diagnosed and treated as early as possible.

Early treatment can help stop the vision becoming severely affected. Taking yourself to the doctor on time and proper medications can treat Glaucoma.

One should have an eye test at least every 2 years. Tests can be done at local opticians, by an optometrist.

Following are some tests to diagnose Glaucoma;

  • Eye pressure test
  • Gonioscopy
  • Visual field test
  • Optic nerve assessment
  • Referral to a specialist

Glaucoma prevention

People should take care of themselves and also go to doctors timely, if glaucoma is detected in its early stages, then treatment will help in preventing glaucoma disease.

Following are some tips for treating glaucoma;

  • Get regular eye checkup
  • Know the family eye health history
  • Exercise safely
  • Take prescribed eye drops regularly
  • Wear eye protection
  • Take proper tests
  • Take vitamin A abundant food
  • Add more fruits to diet
  • Take prescribed medications
  • Add fish and vegetables to diet