Anemia is a disease in which the human body lacks healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen to the body’s tissues. Anemia causes people feel tired and weak.
There are many forms of anemia, each with different causes. Anemia can be short or long term, and has several stages ranging from mild to severe.
There are several types of Anemia, but each of them lowers the number of red blood cells in circulation. Following are some reasons due to which blood cell levels become low;
Human body cannot make enough hemoglobin.
Human body makes hemoglobin, but the hemoglobin doesn’t work adequately.
Human body does not make enough red blood cells.
Human body breaks down red blood cells too quickly.
Iron-deficiency anemia and sickle cell anemia are some of the most common types of Anemia.
Anemia has various symptoms depending on its cause. If the anemia is due to a chronic disease, the disease can mask them, so that kind of anemia might be diagnosed by tests for another condition.
If someone have Anemia, they might have;
- Pale skin.
- Irregular heartbeats.
- Shortness of breath.
- Chest pain.
- Cold hands and feet.
To diagnose Anemia, doctor will ask about your medical and family history, perform a physical exam, and run some of the following tests.
Complete blood count (CBC): It is used to count the number of blood cells in a sample of your blood. Doctor will be examining the levels of the red blood cells contained in your blood (hematocrit), and the hemoglobin in your blood deciliter for women.
A test to identify the size and shape of red blood cells, some of red blood cells might also be examined for unusual size, shape and color.
Many people are at risk for Anemia because of poor diet, intestinal disorders, chronic diseases, infections, and many other reasons. Women who are menstruating or pregnant and people with chronic medical conditions are most at risk for this disease. The risk of anemia increases with age.
Anemia treatment will depend on the type of anemia. For different causes, there are different treatments available.
If someone has aplastic anemia, it might need medication, blood transfusions, or a bone marrow transplant (in which a patient gets a donor’s stem cells).
If someone has hemolytic anemia, it might need medication that will hold back the immune system. Primary care doctors may refer anemia patients to a doctor who specializes in vascular problems.
If anemia is caused by blood loss, then it might have surgery to find and fix the bleeding.
Infographic image of anemia isolated on white background. Realistic vector 3d picture of red blood cells or hemoglobin amount in human blood
If someone has iron-deficiency anemia, they will probably need to take iron supplements and change their diet.
Sickle cell anemia treatment includes painkillers, folic acid supplements, intermittent antibiotics or oxygen therapy. A drug called hydroxyurea (Droxia, Hydrea, Siklos) is often prescribed to decrease sickle cell pain crises (complicated mechanism). The medication called voxelator (Oxbryta) which can help your red blood cells come back in shape. Crizanlizumab-ymca (Adakveo) can keep the blood cells from sticking and blocking vessels. L-glutamine oral powder (Endari) can reduce pain and also guard against a condition called acute chest syndrome.
If someone has a vitamin B12 or folate deficiency, they will be prescribed supplements.
Thalassemia doesn’t usually need treatment, but in severe cases, patients might have blood transfusions, a bone marrow transplant, or surgery.